The Forgotten Investment, Silver

Most of the talk these days centers on gold and gold investing. Its brethren, silver, appears to take secondary role as an investment metal and is thought of more as in jewelry and flatware than as a money making investment.

However, history shows that silver has been a medium for storage of wealth for thousands of years and revered one civilization to the next. It has been widely used in mintage of coins from the Greeks to the Spanish. In fact, silver coins were in wide circulation until 1965 and silver certificates were also redeemable into the precious metal.

Silver has qualities which also make it a sought after industrial metal. It has the highest electrical conductivity of all metals and its ductile and malleable. It has been used in electronics, mirrors batteries, photography and numerous other ways. It has been this trade that has had the most influence on the price since the late 1960’s.

Silvers evolution has extended to the financial markets. As markets have grown futures and ETF’s have had a larger impact. This change in this markets have allowed speculators to participate in silvers price movements. Lately there have been widely circulated news stories concerning the price manipulation of the price of silver. This only goes to show the importance of the metal and that in a free market the price would be much higher than it actually is.

Silver has been on a bull run since 2003 due to the fact that there has been growing demand by both investor and manufacturing alike. At the same time supplies and new finds are declining and restricted. Demand SLV the ETF for Silver has been increasing thereby outpacing supplies of available shares, forcing the custodian to issue new shares and in turn buy more physical silver.

The current economic uncertainty has also played a role in the demand for silver as more investors have purchased it for wealth protection and capital appreciation. This has increased the demand and its price. This trend will most likely continue as the economy faces increasing and renewed challenges.

Scrap silver has become valuable again which speaks as to the current market situation. As silver regains acceptance as an investment vehicle for wealth protection, as it had previously. Demand will continue to grow and compete with industrial sector for the metal. The outcome seems fairly obvious since the metal supply is in limited supply.

It is obvious that silver along with gold should be a precious metal that is included in one’s portfolio that seeks wealth protection and capital appreciation. Both technical and fundamental factors indicate that it is and opportune time to invest in gold and silver.

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Get Help And Advice Online From Car Loan Articles

Car loan articles can be found online with a specialist motoring website and they hold a vast amount of useful information for those who are looking to finance a new or used car. A good site will offer articles on all aspects of car loans which all go towards you finding the best deal for your particular circumstances as well as offering hints and tips on choosing your new vehicle.

By having this knowledge, it means you can make an educated choice as to the right type of car finance for you.

When it comes to finding a loan there are many types to choose from so getting doing your homework is essential, so take advantage of articles aimed at car loans and you get to the best start possible. Articles are often laid out in specific categories which mean you can instantly find access to the information you are looking for.

Car loan articles will tell you all about the various options when it comes to financing your new or used car. Car loan articles giving information for the standard loan will explain the options you have and how to get the best deal possible on a secured or unsecured loan.

The secured loan means that you take the borrowing over a specific amount of time and then spread the repayments in monthly installments over this period. The beauty of this is that you are able to keep the repayments down to a level you can afford each month. However of course the longer you take the loan over, the more interest you will pay. If you have a less than perfect credit rating then this is usually the best chance of securing a loan for a car, as the car will be taken as security against the borrowing.

If you are considering buying a used car then get as much information as you can by way of car loan articles focusing on used car loans or unsecured borrowing. If you have an excellent credit rating and do not need to borrow a lot then you can get a loan without having to put up anything as security. The unsecured loan will usually come with an interest rate that is higher than that of the secured. However by allowing a specialist website to search within the car finance marketplace you can make great savings.

Any type of loan is confusing when it comes to the technical jargon and interest rates. Car loan articles will take the confusion away for you. They will explain clearly what APR means and the tricks that some lenders play to make you believe you are getting an excellent interest rate. For example, some lenders will quotes an interest rate that is for weekly terms and of course if the individual compares this against a monthly or yearly rate then it can seem extremely low. Taking the time to read through the articles and learning as much as possible about car loan and finance can save you a lot of money and of course, a specialist website will offer these resources for free.

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A Proper Family Budget Meets All Financial Needs

To say that every family should have a monthly budget is an understatement. The only way to control your family's finances is with a budget that keeps track of where the money comes from and where it is absolutely spent. A budget, or cash flow plan for those who do not like the B word, is a critical part of any family's secure financial future.

For most families a budget is far down the list of things that are important in the day to day happenings for most families. For most people doing a budget is another task for which they have little time to deal with. Unfortunately this is the reason so many families are having the financial problems that they are dealing with today. A budget can also be a divisive thing if it is used as a way to control the spending habits and place blamed for the financial failures being experienced. For a family budget to work properly it must be used as a tool by all family members that involves financial goals and compromise to reach them.

A budget is actually not that hard to create and keep simply because it is just a list of monthly income and expenses that is either either on a sheet of paper or on a computer equipped with budgeting software. The idea behind any budgeting process is to create a balance between income and expenses so that at the end of the month there is money left over to save, invest, and build wealth.

There is no concrete method for building a family budget because each family's financial needs are different. Some families may be saving for a new car or family vacation, while others are more intent on building savings and college funds. Most families start their budgeting process simply by writing everything down on a piece of paper but as their financial needs grow more complex they may find they need the services of a financial or investment planner.

Another thing to think about and discuss is what are your family's long term financial goals and how do these fit into and affect the monthly budget. It is important to consider not only the goals of individual family members but also the collective goals of the entire family as well. These can include such things as putting away money for a new home, saving for children's college fund, building that retirement nest egg, and probably the most important thing for any family building an emergency savings fund to protect against unforeseen financial emergencies.

The hardest part of finalizing the family budget is making sure you have all the monthly expenses written down. Missing even one or two can seriously affect your budget because at the end of the month you will have less money then originally budgeted for. Be sure to think of those surprise expenses which is particularly important if you have children. It always seems that some unforeseen expense pops up around one of the kid's school activities, or they need new glasses or braces, or something along those lines. Of course if you have an emergency fund in place you can use money from this for such things.

Setting up a proper family budget will not only help you meet your financial goals but will also save money over the long run. Not having money worries will make family life better for all concerned; it just takes a little time and patience.

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Different Methods of Mining Coal

Different methods of coal mining are adapted to dig out the natural coal from the earth. Among them, Surface mining method is applied for producing coal of about nearly 40% in the world. The coal deposits are found on the surface of the earth and make the mining easier for the coal-miners. The various types of coal mining are contour, mountaintop removal and strip mining.

Strip mining is adopted in areas, which has leveled landscape. The surface coal is exposed when the earth covering them is removed in strips. When the whole earth concealing is removed from the surface the coal that lay beneath is exposed. They appear in blocks and are usually extracted either by drilling or blasting. Once the strip is free of coal or goes empty, the strip mining process is continued with the next strip that lay adjacent to the former.

The contour mining is used to remove coal from the layer following the contours found along the ridges of a hill or landscape. The commonly used places for this type of mining are areas with rolling to steep terrain. This method may create landslides and erosion troubles. Using the freshly cut overburden to refill the mined areas rectifies these problems. Strip mining has its own limitations and when the process of strip mining reaches a specific stripping ratio, it may not yield you profit when continued.

Mountaintop removal coal mining can be understood by its name. Removing the mountaintops exposes the coal. This method also involves disposing of mining overburden that is associated with mountaintops removal in nearby valleys. This method is a combination of area and contour strip mining methods. This process creates adverse changes in the topography like creating head of hollow hills and filling valleys with mining wastes.

Latest open cast methods can reveal higher proportion of coal deposit than the underground mining methods.

Deep mining or underground mining is applied to dug out coal that lay underneath the surface of the earth. The primary underground mining ways are Continuous, Longwall, Shortwall, Retreat and Blast Mining.

Longwall mining method is adopted for about 50% of underground mining. This method involves a complex machine with a revolving drum that sways mechanically back and forth across the coal deposit. This method yields high production and ensures safety. This method has sensors that can detect the quantity of remaining coal in the seam and robotic controls contribute to the efficiency of the process.

Continuous mining method is applied for about 45% in underground coal mining. The machine used in this method has a huge revolving steel drum that is facilitated with tungsten carbide teeth to extract the coal from the seam.

Blast mining occupies less than 5% of the whole underground mining in USA. Explosives are used to break the coal seam in this method. The extracted coal is collected and transported to the central area using conveyors or shuttle cars.

Shortwall mining covers 1% and the method is somewhat similar to longwall mining. Retreat mining method employs pillar or coal ribs to support the roof of the mine. This is the most dangerous method as it involves risk of falling roofs that might trap or crush the workers in the mine.

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How Bitcoin Will Promote Latin American Growth

There has been much ado concerning Bitcoin and how authorities and businesses in China and the United States have reacted to it, but possibly more intriguing possibilities may lie ahead for this currency and other cryptocurrencies. The Wall Street Journal ran a piece a week ago about the obvious divide that exists in Latin America. The Atlantic facing countries have more command oriented economies while the Pacific facing countries, with the exception of Ecuador and Nicaragua, have more market-oriented economies. Latin America has become a continent of focus on a global scale with stifled European growth and an Asia-Pacific region that has already been welcomed into the global economic conversation. Alternative currencies will make their mark on Latin America and it will affect both sides in a different fashion. In the end, Bitcoin and Latin American Growth will go together as they both are in spotlight at the same time and cryptocurrencies (including Bitcoin) will afford Latin American businesses and entrepreneurs the opportunity to operate on a level playing field with the rest of the globe.

Notable State Oriented Economies of Latin America

  • Ecuador
  • Bolivia
  • Cuba
  • Brazil
  • Argentina
  • Nicaragua
  • Venezuela

These countries have economies that are more beholden to national interests. The most extreme state run economy on this list is Cuba, which has a Communist regime that has made slight concessions to economic liberalization. Venezuela has arguably the second most extreme state run economy and is in the midst of a socioeconomic and political crisis. Argentina has had its fair share of instability and command-oriented economic events courtesy of President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner including price controls, drama concerning possession of the Falkland Islands, inflation of 26%, police strikes, and the nationalization of YPF just to name a few measures. Brazil is always feared to resort to its old ways and currently there is still a great deal of red tape and taxation is comparatively higher than peers.

Notable Market-Oriented Economies of Latin America

  • Mexico
  • Colombia
  • Panama
  • Chile
  • Peru
  • Belize

Mexico’s efforts to attract and grow business is not just limited to Mexico City, but Guadalajara has been emphasized as a growth destination in the digital and tech space much like the way Bogota is the established economic powerhouse city in Colombia and Medellin has broken out a youthful, digital force. Mexico is currently the 14th largest economy and growing. Mexico is still plagued by the drug cartels as demand for drugs across the northern border still exists. Ciudad Juarez is plagued by cartel-induced violence, which is considered so bad that the Sun Bowl strongly discouraged visitors from traveling across the border as the college bowl game was an opportunity to promote both El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez for tourism and business.

Colombia still is combatting FARC, but it is clearly winning the battle after President Uribe’s term. FARC has been more limited to the jungle areas of Colombia. Active peace talks with FARC are also being negotiated to an extent. The Colombian economy has much room to grow in terms of agriculture, energy, finance, tourism, and digital technology.

Belize is actively courting Americans to purchase real estate in the country marketing their pristine beaches, tax policies, and English fluency. Belize has a lot more growing to do and it has to shake stigmas.

Chile is considered by the Heritage Foundation to be #1 in economic freedom in Latin America. Chile enjoys a trade surplus, a central bank policy rate of 4.5% that would be attractive to investors outside of Chile. Trading the Chilean Peso may be a worthy endeavor for those wishing to take advantage of the carry trade against countries/economic zones that have extremely low interest rates such as the United States, European Union, and Japan. Chile has low inflation and has policies that benefit not just copper exports, but other exports to help maintain the surplus. Morgan Stanley expects Chile, Peru, Colombia, and Mexico to grow on average 4.25% in 2014.

These countries are not facing looting outbreaks, fights over toilet paper, nor do they have leaders that are trying to escalate action against another country.

Bitcoin’s Impact on State-Oriented Economies

In all of these state-oriented economies, there are currency controls. Venezuela and Argentina are infamous for their price controls. Brazil’s government influence in the economy stems from their excessive influence, possible corruption issues, and inflationary concerns. Entrepreneurs, investors, and ordinary individuals will be looking to the marketplace to meet their needs. Rationing, red tape, high costs, and possible surveillance are associated with these state-oriented economies. Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies will meet the needs of many that have access to the internet.

Competing globally in countries that wish to be more insular comes with negative ramifications, but the usage of the internet and the ability to transact in a possibly untraced fashion in a global marketplace will enable competitive pricing for citizens to receive the goods and services needed. Venezuelans will be able to buy toilet paper from foreign sources without having to use a currency that is being grossly debased. Venezuelans will also have the opportunity to engage in entrepreneurship while still in Venezuela to fund their endeavors and possible defection to other countries such as Colombia. Over 26% of Venezuelans use the internet on a daily basis. Venezuela has not filtered the internet just yet and purchasing Bitcoin is far more secure than holding onto Bolivar.

Bitcoin usage could take the government’s tight grip on the economy away by rendering its presence useless by adopting the private currency. Less tax revenues can be collected, a populace that is armed financially and possibly literally (you could have bought anything on Silk Road), and decreased influence from political leaders and enforcers as cryptocurrency usage becomes viral. This thought process can be applied to Venezuela-lite in Argentina, which is an economy with a lot of potential.

The Brazilian economy could grow further by giving businesses more exposure overseas and overcoming the exotic sovereign currency issue. The World Cup in 2014 and Olympics in 2016 will put much pressure on the Brazilian economy to grow and keep up appearances. Lower transaction costs, currency familiarity, and nationality ambivalence with Bitcoin customers will help Brazilian firms seeking to do business outside of Brazil. With a large influx of tourists and business-people coming to Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, the acceptance of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies will remove the barriers of having to convert currencies and engage in secure purchases. Brazil may be a more command-oriented economy like Argentina, but global expectations and aspirations should push them away from past tendencies.

For the state-oriented economies, Bitcoin and its competitors offer greater freedom, monetary security, entrepreneurship opportunities, transaction security, and privacy. In the case of Venezuela, it could spark a change in governance much like the way social media was credited for bringing in the Arab Spring to life. Much of the problems surrounding Venezuela are economic in nature and the black market is a natural alternative. Prevention of seizure of assets by keeping them in a digital wallet in the cloud is far more secure than keeping funds in a bank regulated by the Venezuelan government.

Bitcoin’s Role in Economic Growth for the Pacific Countries

Entrepreneurship as described in the previous section is on a smaller level than what may be in Colombia, Mexico, Chile, and Peru. Colombia and Mexico have cities that have hopes to global players in the digital space. Attracting business from Europe, Canada, and the United States would be easier with lower exchange and transaction fees. Credit cards and PayPal place transaction fees on users wishing to make international transactions and this fee would be reduced.

Latin American outsourcing can experience growth as call centers, development and design firms, and independent contractors are able to not only competitively bid as they do now, but they would be able to accept Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies and this will drive in more business. It is not a fad, it is a matter of making an easier and cheaper transaction. Less barriers to making the purchase will make the sale and it will help Latin American businesses be able to be global, which can lead to Venture Capital growth.

Bitcoin will lead to greater international business transactions for Latin America and enable economic growth. The benefits are different for these countries as the need for stability is not pressing, but rather these countries have an insatiable appetite for growth. Entrepreneurship, competing globally, lower transaction fees, transactional security, competitive biddng, improved economic development, and changing perceptions are all benefits of adopting cryptocurrencies in these countries. A startup in Medellin or Cartagena can compete with a firm in Toronto and another firm in Indianapolis for a services contract. Removing the barriers of nationality from the transaction to focus solely on the services provided and costs involved are a major benefit.

Consumers win too in these countries as they would gain purchasing power because some items are more expensive in their domestic markets than foreign markets. Ex-pats and immigrants can send money to family members in their native country in a simple, inexpensive, quick, and secure fashion. This can help boost local economies.

Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies help make the world a smaller place just like the way air travel, the internet, telecommunications, and social media have done. Cryptocurrencies promote globalization and Bitcoin will help provide that opportunity to Latin America, which is eager to compete and grow in the global marketplace.

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What’s the Hype With Coin Collecting? It’s Fun

If you are ever wondering what the hype is about with coin collecting then this is the article for you. Coin collecting is a great hobby. It also turns into a business for some. Any variation from a coin that is in regular circulation is collectable. Some of the coins include Quarters and Dimes before 1965. They are made of 90% silver. An easy and very fast way to check for these coins in your wallet or from a bank coin roll is to just look at the side of the coins. If the side is all silver with no copper showing, then it is a silver coin. Be careful with nickels however, because only the 1942 to 1945 nickels are silver. They are 35% silver and checking the sides will not work because they do not have enough copper in them to begin with.

1944 Steal Penny

One of the best finds you could get would be a 1944 steal penny. These penny's are worth between $ 100,000 and $ 200,000. The same is true for the copper 1945 penny. The reason for this is because copper was used for the war to make bullets. They used steal for pennies during 1945 so they are supposedly to be steel. If they are copper when you find a 1945 penny then you have a very rare wheat penny worth a lot of money.

You can use the silver side trick for half dollars as well. Older half dollars are ninety percent silver and semi old Kennedy Half dollars are 30% silver.

You can also go on eBay or coin websites like heritage auctions.com. You can get US coins, International Coins, ancient coins, and more. When you bid on a coin in an auction site. Be sure to make sure that the coin is in at least fine condition. You do not want a coin that is in bad condition because it makes the coin worth less.

Coin Roll Hunting

If you really want something cool to get added to, try going to your local bank. Go to the bank where your checking account is. Ask for rolls of coins! I usually ask for a box of pennies, which is $ 25 worth of pennies or 50 rolls. I also ask for a few dime and nickel rolls. What you'll find will always be a ton of fun. I collect wheat pennies which I find in every other roll usually, Indian Head pennies which in great condition are worth at least $ 10 especially if the word "Liberty" on the headdress band is clear. The 1906 S Indian Head Penny is worth $ 600! It is rare. I've found buffalo nickels which when the dates are legitimate are worth $ 2.00 at least. I found Mercury dimes which show a winged liberty bust of lady liberty and are silver. Also, silver war nickels. Taking out a quarter roll is fun too. You'll find a few silver ones now and then. A 1932 Silver quarter is worth good money. Happy coin hunting!

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Bad Credit Business Loan

Based on bank lending practices, one might be misled to believe that people with a bad credit history are not capable of running successful businesses, illegally to repay business loans, and overall, risky borrowers. But the truth of the matter is; having bad credit does not make a person incapable of running a profitable business.

There are many reasons why a person may have a low credit score that may have no relation to their money management skills. These include having obscene amounts of student loans to repay after graduating before getting a job that can support those payments, and getting used in the lure of credit cards as a young adult and having to pay for it later. But in the end, these mistakes can serve as a learning experience, teaching a person to make wiser financial decisions in the future and making them better equipped to handle financial problems that are presented within their business.

The question remains: Is there hope for business owners who have poor personal credit histories? Is there a way to get a bad credit business loan?

The answer is yes. Through a business cash advance, a business owner can get a loan for his / her business even if he / she has bad credit. This is due business cash advance lenders take the strain of repayment off of the borrower, making the business responsible for repaying a loan.

How does this work? A business cash advance is a purchase of a business' future credit card sales. Business cash advance companies provide an up-front cash payment in exchange for a small percentage of the credit card sales that a business makes until the loan is completely paid off. Therefore, having bad credit is not a disqualifying factor when it comes to receiving a business cash advance.

The repayment of a business cash advance also has no affect on a borrower's credit score. So the borrower does not have to worry about worsening his / her credit score when receiving a business cash advance.

Many Americans do not have the 700 point credit score that is normally required to receive a business loan, but that does not mean that their dreams of running a successful business should be shattered. Fortunately, the availability of business cash advances gives business owners with bad credit another option, making it possible for them to finance the development of their businesses.

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Forex Robots – The Sales Copy Says Huge Profits But the Truth? Most Destroy Equity Quickly

Every forex robot promotes a track record of gains and yet well over 95% failure to deliver so here is the sales copy translated so you can find out the ones that will not make money and find the minority which do …

Here is the sales copy and translation

1. A track record of spectral gains

On paper yes, in real trading not at all. Try and find a track record which does not have the worlds "simulated" and in "hindsight" on it in the risk warning – a word from experience, you will have a long search. The track records you see of $ 100,000 a year are not real dollars there paper dollars done looking back with all the facts and price data to hand. The reality of trading forex though is you do not have that luxury of knowing the closing prices.

That's why you can get financial freedom for $ 100.00 or so – its not real life though!

2. A formula that occurs and re occurs for consistent gains

The formula works once on paper and never works again and the system takes a bath. The vendor simply bends the system to fit the data (a concept known as curve fitting) and curve fitting is always the death of a trading system in real time trading, as the data never replicates itself exactly again the system fails.

3. Designed By a Boffin

Usually an ex banker, mathematician or other boffin. Why does that ensure success? Trading systems that tend to work tend to be simple and being clever or having an education mean nothing in forex trading – its results and that's it and I know plenty of simple traders who make money and plenty of clever ones that do not.

4. Earn Money Without knowing anything

You can try and earn money but if the systems worked as the vendors say, ie there is no work involved, begs the question – Why bother selling the system, why not trade it and keep quite you could make yourself a millionaire or better and not worry about a few hundred bucks from a sale.

You do not get anything in life for nothing and it's the same in forex trading

5. You have nothing to lose

On the fee maybe not, on the account probably yes!

Demo accounts (unless you want to trade them for a long time) are no real use, as you need a year to judge a system and also there is no pressure, so its not a real trading experience and after reading this article why bother, you know the facts.

Forex robots sell in there thousands and very few work and most simply fail miserably in the market and its no wonder when they have never been traded. The hypothetical track record simply is not questioned by buyers – but why not? That's the acid test and keep in mind you cant spend paper money.

If you want to make money at forex trading understand, it's not easy and you do not achieve success with no effort.

You can make gains but you need to get a solid forex education, a simple system, that's robust, logical and you understand and can trade with discipline. You are then on the road to currency trading success.

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Trademark Application: Online Tools to Protect Your Investment

Many businesses understand the benefits of trademarks for their products and services, in protecting them from the time and monetary investment in developing those products and services. However, many organisations and businesses are unaware of the need to register these trademarks to comprehensively protect their brand and business offerings.

Without the security of a registered trademark, a business risks losing the investment, or minimising the effect of, developmental and marketing efforts that it engages in. Competitors in the same or similar industries could potentially own a trademark with comparative qualities and identity in order to market products and services that replicate the business model. This could not only affect the revenue generating capability of the business by increasing the level of competition in the marketplace, but could lead to a damage of the image that has been created; resulting in a lower perception of quality by current and potential customers. Given the importance of securing your investment made in the marketplace, as well as securing the business future, legally registering the interest through the trademark application process is essential.

Applying for a trademark application, and upon finalisation, provides numerous benefits to the business, including that they are able to strongly differentiate their identity and products in the marketplace from their competitors. Furthermore, the trademark can act as a marketing instrument which empowers a company to control the image and perception presented to the market. An important commercial asset, applying for a trademark application can provide a level of quality to consumers, guaranteeing potential buyers of the quality of the products and services being sold.

The brand and logo of the company is the physical representation of the quality of the business. Successful logos and brands evoke instant feelings of trust, credibility and a desire by the consumers to purchase from the brand in question. This is why it is imperative that a trademark application be processed for the company’s design work, images, colour, fonts and other components that make up the logo and brand.

Since the inception of the internet, people have been turning to the web to source important information; and with the recent trends in websites providing online assistance and purchasing, a majority of consumers are turning to the internet to source information and purchase online. Trademark applications are no exception, with industry leading business protection companies developing software and wizards which guide the user through the trademark application process; alerting the user to important issues and prompting where other additional information may be required.

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Agriculture Investment Funds – The Best Alternative

In times of a rapidly expanding population, low interest rates, inflation and murky equity markets, investors are searching for assets that will grow in value, produce a regular income, and retain value in the event of a crash. Essentially we need a safe haven for our cash and that is leading many investors towards the agricultural sector as 75 million new mouths to feed every year and a changing diet in developing economies supports the theory that agribusiness will do well in the mid to long term.

There are a number of options open for investors choosing this sector, from agricultural investment funds, ETFs, direct investment into agribusiness companies, or trading soft-commodities such as wheat. My problem here lies in the fact that these investment strategies do not tick all of our boxes. Funds incur management fees, and over the lifetime of a mutual fund, investors lose 80% of their gain to management fees, commodities can be volatile in the short term, and investing into agribusiness companies does provide any level of non-correlation.

So what is the alternative? More and more canny investors, both private and institutional, are snapping up what little good quality agricultural land is left in the hope that as time passes, and the population continues to grow, the land we have will become more valuable in the face of a higher demand for food. We also know that well tilled land will produce an income every year from the growth and sale of crops, replacing the lost risk-free income we no longer achieve from holding cash. Of course, if someone somewhere finds an alternative to food then the value of farmland will fall, but I think we can all agree that we will all have to eat at some point and therefore arable land retains value even in the worst of circumstances.

So how does the small investor source a piece of agricultural land large enough to farm commercially? And how do we reduce general agricultural risk such as exposure to poor weather, commodity prices and quality farm management? There are opportunities for the smaller investor to take part in large farmland investment transactions, either pooling capital with other investors in order to purchase better and larger land parcels, and other very interesting structured vehicles allowing the small investor to purchase a small piece of a much larger, commercially managed farm, with the farmer shouldering the general agricultural risk and paying the land owning investor a fixed annual income. This methodology, provides the farmer with much needed liquid capital to expand operations and invest in the his business, whilst providing the investor with risk-managed exposure to high-yielding farmland, consistent income, principle protection and capital growth.

Where should one consider purchasing farmland? The EU, Latin America and Australia are all investable locations, and have consistently achieved returns of between 10% and 20% over income and growth depending on the location of the farm and the structure of the investment.

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